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  • ΕΘΝΙΚΟ ΑΡΧΑΙΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΜΟΥΣΕΙΟ ΑΘΗΝΑΣ-OFFICIAL SITE
    1880 1895 1897 The enrichment of the Collection continued at the beginning of the 20th century with purchases donations and through an official exchange program of antiquities 1928 Today the Cypriot Collection totals to around 850 artefacts representative of all chronological periods of the Cypriot history and art from the Early Bronze Age around 2500 BC to the Roman times 4th cent AD This permanent exhibition of Cypriot Antiquities of

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/collections/cypriot/index-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    produce clay figurines First half of the 7th century BC The Mermnad dynasty expands the Lydian kingdom Gyges 690 BC Gela is founded by Rhodians Circa 680 BC Thasos is colonised by Parians 676 673 BC Terpander a highly significant poet and musician from Antissa on Lesbos wins a music competition in Sparta Circa 675 BC The Cimmerians invade Phrygia and later Lydia they capture Sardis in 652 Circa 660 BC The first naval battle between Greeks Corinth and Corkyra Corfu From circa 650 BC on The first tyranny comes into being Cypselus the first tyrant of Corinth ruled the city for thirty years to the benefit of the lower classes During his hegemony the city developed its commerce and established new colonies Greek pottery of this period has been found as far away as the Nile Delta Mid 7th century BC Second Messenian War after the uprising of the Messenian helots 640 BC Birth of Solon wise man poet and political reformer of Athens 630 570 BC Athenian pottery painters adopt the capabilities offered by the black figure style They create magnificent narrative compositions on themes inspired by the heroic past daily life rituals games etc Known artists of the period include the Nessos Painter Kleitias Nearchos Sophilos and others Circa 630 BC Cyrene is founded in Africa by colonists from Thera In Athens the temple of Athena Polias now known as the old temple is built on the Acropolis This old temple was destroyed by the Persians in 480 628 BC Foundation of Selinus 624 BC The legislation of Draco a codification of existing laws limited arbitrary actions by the rich against the poor 620 480 BC ARCHAIC PERIOD The zenith of the city state 620 580 70 BC EARLY ARCHAIC PERIOD The types of the kouros and the kore are characteristic of the sculpture 625 535 BC Corinthian pottery painting is dominated by narrative scenes simplified and without special care plants and animals are secondary 610 BC Lyric poetry is at its height with Alcaeus and Sappho important poets from Lesbos 610 546 BC The pre Socratic philosopher Thales is active in Miletus Tradition places him among the seven wise men His concerns about the origin of the world and his reduction of multiple phenomena to an impersonal single principle are the main features of his thought Anaximander is his pupil Circa 600 BC Massalia Marseille is founded by Phocaeans Periander son of Cypselus known for his harshness becomes the tyrant of Corinth 594 3 BC Solon archon of Athens institutes significant legislative regulations through the seisachtheia i e the liberation of peasants who had been enslaved by landowners for debt the division of citizens into four classes according to their income and their equal representation in the Boule of 400 He established the law court of the Heliaia making all Athenians over the age of 30 eligible for selection as judges Circa 590 580 BC Invention of currency in coin form by the Lydians and the Greeks of Asia Minor 590 BC The Pythian Games are established Panhellenic games at Delphi in honour of Apollo 582 BC The Isthmian Games are established Panhellenic games at the sanctuary of Poseidon 580 70 530 BC MATURE ARCHAIC PERIOD 573 BC The Nemean Games are established Panhellenic games dedicated to Zeus 566 BC The Great Panathenaea festivals are established the main feast of Athena that was held every four years in honour of the protecting goddess of the city of Athens During this festival glorious athletic contests were held 566 565 BC Conventional date for the inauguration of the archaic Parthenon This was the first large stone temple dedicated to Athena which is known by the conventional name of Hecatompedos because it was 100 feet long 561 560 BC Peisistratus assumes power in Athens for the first time 560 530 BC The mature period of the black figure style with outstanding artists including Lydos the Amasis Painter and Exekias 559 530 BC The Persian Empire is founded by the Achaemenid Cyrus who enlarged his state to encompass the territory from the Indus river to the coast of Ionia 556 469 BC The lyric poet Simonides of Keos composed elegies choral poems victory hymns dithyrambs parthenia songs sung by maidens to the flute laments and epigrams including his excellent poems to those fallen at Thermopylae and Marathon 547 BC The end of the Lydian kingdom is marked by the fall of Sardis Croesus is captured by Darius II 546 527 BC Peisistratus assumes power for the second time He ensures the consolidation of the Athenian presence in the central Aegean and cements relations with the other powerful cities of Greece He took care that the Homeric epics were collected and copied and that libraries were established Peisistratus is also attributed with enhancing the Panathenaea festivals and the Eleusinian mysteries and with establishing the Great Dionysia in the city 545 527 BC The first Athenian coins are struck according to the most recent research during the years of Peisistratus 544 BC Birth of Heraclitus a Greek philosopher in Ephesus His philosophy deals critically with the developments of his time He sees the world not as the result of creation or generation but as having existed eternally and describes it as a living fire which alternatively becomes stronger and weaker without ever being completely extinguished 534 BC Beginning of the Greek drama with Thespis Thespis in 536 established the first actor in a performance who conversed with the chorus and played many roles 530 490 80 BC LATE ARCHAIC PERIOD 530 BC The great Greek mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras drew up the Pythagorean table of numbers a multiplication table i e the products of the first nine integers He likewise worked out and proved the Pythagorean theorem according to which on a right angle triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides 530 522 BC Cambysis son of the Achaemenid Cyrus supplements the work of his father by conquering Pharaonic Egypt 528 27 BC Peisistratus dies and power is assumed in Athens by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus who pursue a cruel policy 527 BC Birth of the Athenian politician and general Themistocles who later won the naval battle of Salamis 480 525 24 BC Birth of the dramatic poet Aeschylus in Eleusis He took part in battles against the Persians and his work reflects the historical moment exactly His extant tragedies are Agamemnon The Libation Bearers The Furies Persians Seven Against Thebes Prometheus Bound and Suppliants 522 486 BC King Darius I of Persia organises an immense empire and makes it the mightiest power in the eastern Mediterranean 522 BC Birth of Pindar 522 443 perhaps the greatest lyric poet of Ancient Greece He wrote odes in praise of various noteworthy persons such as Alexander I of Macedonia He composed hymns paeans dithyrambs eulogies victory odes and other forms of poetry 530 500 BC The black figure style reaches its pinnacle exhausting all its technical potential Athenian pottery painters of the age influenced by the achievements of its great painting including the more natural rendering of the human body and drapery devised the red figure style the reverse of the black figure Late 6th early 5th century BC The philosopher poet Xenophanes of Colophon levels criticism at religious anthropomorphism and promotes monotheism 515 BC Birth of the philosopher Parmenides founder of the Eleatic School in southern Italy Regarded as the most original of the pre Socratic thinkers he did not seek the unity of the world in one natural substance but in the being of things Γύρω στo 515 BC Work began in Athens on a monumental Doric temple known as the Temple of Olympian Zeus which was not completed Much later an attempt was made in 174 BC by Antiochus IV Epiphanes of Syria to continue the project but it was not until 124 125 AD that the temple was completed by the emperor Hadrian 514 BC Hipparchos son of Peisistratos is assassinated in Athens during the Great Panathenaea The Athenians honour the tyrannicides Harmodios and Aristogeiton with statues works by the sculptor Antenor which were erected in the Agora 510 BC Fall of Peisistratus second son Hippias After 510 BC Construction begins on the Late Archaic Parthenon on the site of the archaic Parthenon Only the gigantic foundation or stereobate was constructed and the temple was never finished owing to the invasion of the Persians in 490 508 7 BC The Alcmeonid Cleisthenes as archon introduced reforms and is regarded as the founder of the democratic system of government in Athens He organised the population into 10 tribes founded the Boule of 500 whose members were elected by lot from all the tribes and installed the system of the prytaneia 500 475 BC Age of the MATURE ARCHAIC RED FIGURE STYLE used by significant pottery painters such as the Kleophrades Painter the Berlin Painter the Brygos Painter Makron and Douris 499 BC One of the causes of the war between the Greeks and Persians was the uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor Caria and Cyprus against Persian rule known as the Ionian revolt during which help was sought from Athens and Sparta and given by Athens 498 BC The Ionians capture Sardis 497 6 BC Birth of the great tragic poet Sophocles who was very popular among the Athenians owing to his political and religious activities Sophocles wrote 123 tragedies only seven of which are extant Antigone Electra Trachinian Women Oedipus the King Ajax Philoctetes and Oedipus at Colonus The focal point of Sophocles works is always the individual who comes into an inevitable tragic and guilty conflict with the order represented by the gods 494 BC The Spartan king Cleomenes I defeats the Argives at the battle of Sepeia establishing Spartan possessions in the eastern Peloponnese 493 BC Themistocles becomes Archon of Athens He created the Athenian navy and essentially transformed the city into the superpower of the time He fortified it with the Long Wall parts of which have been preserved to this day 492 BC Mardonios fights in Thrace and Macedonia to restore Persian sovereignty in these areas 490 BC Datis and Artaphernes wage war against Eretria and Athens by sea and destroy them The Greeks defeat the numerically superior Persian forces at Marathon thanks to Miltiades the brilliant Athenian military leader and to the bravery and self sacrifice of the Athenians the hoplites of Plataea and their liberated slaves who fought by their side 490 BC Birth of Phidias 490 430 one of the most famous sculptors in Greek antiquity who supervised the large group of sculptors stonemasons and architects who built the Parthenon Among his best known works were the colossal chryselephantine gold and ivory statues of Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon and of Zeus at Olympia 490 BC Birth of Pericles the foremost Athenian politician in the Classical Period After 490 BC On the gigantic stereobate of the late archaic Parthenon construction began on another temple of Athena It was the first marble temple in Athens now known as the Pre Parthenon Before it was completed the pre Parthenon was destroyed by the Persians in 480 as were all the other monuments on the Acropolis 488 BC Death of the Spartan king Cleomenes I who is succeeded by Leonidas 487 86 BC Reform of the political system in Athens The archons are elected by lot and the authority of the strategoi increases 487 BC During the feast of the Great Dionysia the first comedy is performed in Athens 486 BC Death of Darius I king of the Persians who is succeeded by his son Xerxes 480 BC Birth of Herodotus 480 430 2 historian and geographer at Halicarnassus Known as the father of history Herodotus wrote about the Persian Wars as well as about the various places he visited and people he met on his extensive travels 480 BC Birth of Protagoras at Abdera in Thrace the greatest Sophist and one of the greatest philosophers of antiquity The main component of his thought was that we know only what we perceive not the thing perceived 483 BC on Xerxes prepares for an expedition to Greece 482 BC The Athenian fleet begins to be built according to the plan of the strategos commander or general Themistocles 480 450 BC EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD Significant changes occur in art this is the period of the Severe Style Figures appear as serious almost strict and surfaces are as simplified as possible The best known sculptors are Kritios Nesiotes Pythagoras Calamis and Myron 480 BC summer Significant confrontation between the Greeks and Persians in the battle of Thermopylae where 300 Spartans together with other Hellenes fell heroically in the battle led by king Leonidas 480 BC autumn Athens is evacuated and the Persians capture and plunder the Acropolis and the entire city The brilliant strategy of Themistocles and the resoluteness of the Greeks led to the defeat of the Persians at the naval battle of Salamis and obliged the Persian king to return to Sardis humiliated 479 78 BC Mardonios invades Attica and completes the destruction wrought by Xerxes In the battle which took place in late August north of Plataea the Persians were routed by the Spartan phalanx and Mardonios was killed Cimon was elected strategos 478 BC Pausanias fights in Cyprus and at Byzantium 478 77 BC In the first 50 years that followed the victory of the Hellenes in the Persian Wars Athens assumed a leading position by establishing a large confederacy known as the Delian League uniting 300 cities The League aimed to ensure continuous protection against the Persian threat mainly in the cities of Ionia the Hellespont and the Aegean Islands 475 450 BC EARLY FREE RED FIGURE STYLE in pottery painting A freer rendering of figures and compositions Important artists include the Penthesilea Painter the Pan Painter and the Niobid Painter 472 BC Pericles makes his first official appearance in the political life of Athens as the choregos sponsor of Aeschylus tragedy Persians 470 456 BC Construction of the temple of Zeus the largest in the Peloponnese at Olympia The booty obtained by the Eleians from the Pisatans is dedicated in the sanctuary Regarded as the perfect expression the Canon of Doric temples The sculptures on the pediments and relief metopes constitute representative examples of the sculpture of the Severe Style 469 BC Birth in Athens of Socrates one of the greatest philosophers in ancient Greece and indeed in the entire world He gave a new form to philosophy focused on man and based on the knowledge of things Socrates was the founder of Ethics and has exercised a significant influence on subsequent generations 468 BC The Persians marshal their army and fleet at Pamphylia aiming to move on Asia Minor and the Aegean Cimon leader of the Hellenic expedition with 300 allied triremes 200 Athenian and 5000 hoplites armed infantry defeat the Persian forces after a battle at sea and on land at the mouth of the river Eurymedon Death of Aristides 467 BC Aeschylus tragedy Seven Against Thebes is performed 465 BC The Athenians decide to send 10 000 colonists Athenians and allies to Thrace to begin exploiting its natural resources Thasos seeing its interests threatened rebelled Cimon imposed order after a three year siege 465 455 BC Outbreak of the 3rd Messenian War with the Messenians once again rising up against the Spartans who defeated them again and obliged many of them to seek refuge in Naupactus 462 BC Cimon fails in his operation against the rebellious helots of Sparta and is ostracised 462 1 BC Pericles assumes the leadership of Athens who in collaboration with Ephialtes son of Sophonides and Archestratus consolidated democracy by implementing significant reforms in the political system Under his leadership Athens becomes the dominant military political and cultural power 460 BC Birth on Kos of Hippocrates the physician who was the first to classify medical knowledge systematically and who attempted to treat diseases in a methodical way Birth of the historian Thucydides who became famous as the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War which described the clash between Athens and Sparta 431 404 460 BC Famous battle at Oenoe in the Argolid in which the invincibility of the Spartans was refuted by the united Argives and Athenians 460 459 BC The Athenians go to war in Egypt and capture Memphis Themistocles is exiled and dies 459 445 BC The spectacular increase of Athenian power inevitably leads it to clash with Sparta The occasion was the alliance between Athens and Argos which was at war with Sparta The war that ensued became known as the First Peloponnesian War 459 BC Aegina is cut off by the Athenian forces Birth of Lysias one of the most famous orators of antiquity in Syracuse He wrote about 200 forensic speeches thirty of which have been preserved the most important being Against Eratosthenes In favour of the weak Funeral Oration Against Diogeitonas and others 458 BC Aeschylus trilogy the Orestia is performed 457 56 BC Zeugites the class of Athenian citizens who were wealthy enough to own a team of oxen acquire the right to be elected archon 457 BC The battle of Tanagra the largest land battle between Hellenes to date in which the Spartans and their allies were victorious 456 BC Surrender of Aegina Defeat and siege of the Athenians and Egyptians on the islet of Prosoptin in the Nile by the Achaemenid Persian Megabyzus Death of Aeschylus 454 BC The Delian League treasury is transferred from Delos to Athens 451 BC A five year truce is declared between Athens and Sparta 450 425 BC HIGH CLASSICAL PERIOD in sculpture which is characterised by unprecedented movement and liberated poses Three sculptors led the way in the maturation of Classical art Phidias of Athens Myron of Eleutheres and Polyclitus of Argos 450 420

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/collections/chronoltable-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    MUSEUM EDUCATION SITE MAP VISITING Permanent Exhibitions Temporary Exhibitions See also A A The exhibitions of the National Arcahaeological Museum HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE SPORTS NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM 2008 2016

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/exhibitions/index-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    Cycladic Antiquities Collection of Antiquities of Thera Collection of Mycenaean Antiquities Sculpture Metalwork Vases and Minor Arts Egyptian Antiquities Cypriotic Antiquities Temporary Exhibitions Current Exhibition Previous Exhibitions See also A A The Collection of Prehistoric Antiquities The permanent exhibition of

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/exhibitions/permanent/permanent-proistorika-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    intellectual creation material prosperity and democratic consolidation under the leadership of Perikles Athens was the center to which flocked among other artists sculptors from other areas which contributed to the decoration of buildings and monuments of the city with sculptures of high artistic quality and originality At the beginning of this period sculpture conquered the third dimension One of the rare surviving bronze works is Zeus or Poseidon found in the sea off Cape Artemision on the Euboia island it once held the thunderbolt of Zeus or Poseidon s trident no X 15161 hall 15 At the peak of the 5th century BC great sculptors were inspired by the human body rendering it with idealistic idealized beauty and spiritual content At Eleusis has been found the large relief depicting the three main figures of the mystery cult practiced at the Eleusinian sanctuary Demeter Persephone and the young hero Triptolemus no 126 hall 15 Next to the relief is the clay pinax plaque devoted to the same temple by a faithful woman with the name the Ninnion no A 11036 hall 15 The statue of the goddess Nemesis who was worshiped at Rhamnus and had been sculpted by the sculptor Agorakritos survives in a Roman copy no 3949 hall 19 The former s teacher the Athenian Pheidias had made the chryselephantine ivory and gold statue of Athena Parthenos on the Athenian Acropolis From that enormous work 12 meters high is preserved a small Roman adaptation in marble no 129 hall 20 The marble Diadoumenos found on Delos the athlete who ties the fillet of victory on his forehead is a late Hellenistic copy of bronze work of Polykleitos from Argos and was once gilded no 1826 hall 21 Then followed a difficult period that of the Peloponnesian War 431 404 BC the civil war between Athens and Sparta For the dead of the war and the epidemic that occurred at its beginning were again allowed in Athens the marble monuments formerly banned by law for political and economic reasons Often these were large marble vases with special symbolism hall 16 or simple stelai plaques like the one with the young man holding the bird he took from a cage perhaps in a symbolic gesture referring to the liberation of the soul from his dead body no 715 hall 16 Sometimes they take the form of a small temple in which the dead is depicted like that with Hegeso from the Kerameikos cemetery seated in front of her sad servant no 738 hall 18 By the end of the war the Spartan hegemony became prominent but a little later Athens and Thebes recovered forces until in the 4th century BC the nationwide hegemony was successfully claimed by the Macedonian kings Philip II and Alexander III Μajor Greek cities were developed while even before the war ended regional sculpture schools were created and represented by important sculptors Sculpture was inspired by the rich movement of drapery following body movement such as that of

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/exhibitions/permanent/permanent-sculpture-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    Prehistoric Antiquities Sculpture Metalwork Vases and Minor Arts Egyptian Antiquities Cypriotic Antiquities Temporary Exhibitions Current Exhibition Previous Exhibitions See also A A The Collection of Metalwork The permanent exhibition of the Collection of Metalwork Under construction HELLENIC MINISTRY OF CULTURE

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/exhibitions/permanent/permanent-metal-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    Vlastou Serpieri Collection The Terracotta Figurines Collection The Jewellry Collection The Collection of Glass Vases Egyptian Antiquities Cypriotic Antiquities Temporary Exhibitions Current Exhibition Previous Exhibitions See also A A The Collection of Vases and Minor Arts The permanent exhibition of

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/exhibitions/permanent/permanent-aggeia-en.html (2016-02-09)
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  • NATIONAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM OF ATHENS - OFFICIAL SITE
    4000 BC to the New Kingdom 1550 1070 BC This room introduces the visitor to the world of Egypt through the main aspects of daily life namely worship magic art religion and funerary customs The second room covers the history of Egyptian civilization from the Third Intermediate period 1070 BC until the Roman era 30 BC AD 395 During this important interval the Egyptian repertoire was enriched through contact with Greece Here the visitor can admire sarcophagi and funerary objects that are unique in Egyptian art learn about the numerous gods of ancient Egypt and recognize the close relationship between the Egyptian and Greek civilizations in Egyptian artefacts influenced by Greek art Egyptian civilization is particularly popular among modern Greeks The National Archaeological Museum s display is the only permanent display of Egyptian art in Greece and a pan Hellenic educational centre for ancient Egypt The mysteries of Egyptian civilization are explained through the informative materials on the ancient Egyptians beliefs and the manufacture and use of their artefacts that accompany the exhibits The history of the collection of Egyptian antiquities of the National Archaeological Museum A small core of Egyptian antiquities was formed during the first years of the newly founded Greek state when Greek dilettanti donated Egyptian artefacts to Athens University 1837 1868 These objects were subsequently handed over to the Archaeological Society and deposited in the National Archaeological Museum in 1894 The first large collection of Egyptian antiquities to be donated to the National Archaeological Museum came from Ioannis Dimitriou a Greek expatriate from Lemnos A merchant and entrepreneur Dimitriou settled early in Alexandria Egypt He owned large tracts of land in the central and eastern Nile Delta and was involved primarily in cultivating and processing cotton Dimitrious acquired his collection of Egyptian antiquities and coins gradually

    Original URL path: http://www.namuseum.gr/exhibitions/permanent/permanent-egypt-en.html (2016-02-09)
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